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This tutorial shows how to use the @pythonization decorator to add extra behaviour to C++ user classes that are used from Python via PyROOT.

import ROOT
from ROOT import pythonization
# Let's first define a new C++ class. In this tutorial, we will see how we can
# "pythonize" this class, i.e. how we can add some extra behaviour to it to
# make it more pythonic or easier to use from Python.
#
# Note: In this example, the class is defined dynamically for demonstration
# purposes, but it could also be a C++ class defined in some library or header.
# For more information about loading C++ user code to be used from Python with
# PyROOT, please see:
# https://root.cern.ch/manual/python/#loading-user-libraries-and-just-in-time-compilation-jitting
ROOT.gInterpreter.Declare('''
class MyClass {};
''')
# Next, we define a pythonizor function: the function that will be responsible
# for injecting new behaviour in our C++ class `MyClass`.
#
# To convert a given Python function into a pythonizor, we need to decorate it
# with the @pythonization decorator. Such decorator allows us to define which
# which class we want to pythonize by providing its class name and its
# namespace (if the latter is not specified, it defaults to the global
# namespace, i.e. '::').
#
# The decorated function - the pythonizor - must accept either one or two
# parameters:
# 1. The class to be pythonized (proxy object where new behaviour can be
# injected)
# 2. The fully-qualified name of that class (optional).
#
# Let's see all this with a simple example. Suppose I would like to define how
# `MyClass` objects are represented as a string in Python (i.e. what would be
# shown when I print that object). For that purpose, I can define the following
# pythonizor function. There are two important things to be noted here:
# - The @pythonization decorator has one argument that specifies our target
# class is `MyClass`.
# - The pythonizor function `pythonizor_of_myclass` provides and injects a new
# implementation for `__str__`, the mechanism that Python provides to define
# how to represent objects as strings. This new implementation
# always returns the string "This is a MyClass object".
@pythonization('MyClass')
def pythonizor_of_myclass(klass):
klass.__str__ = lambda o : 'This is a MyClass object'
# Once we have defined our pythonizor function, let's see it in action.
# We will now use the `MyClass` class for the first time from Python: we will
# create a new instance of that class. At this moment, the pythonizor will
# execute and modify the class - pythonizors are always lazily run when a given
# class is used for the first time from a Python script.
my_object = ROOT.MyClass()
# Since the pythonizor already executed, we should now see the new behaviour.
# For that purpose, let's print `my_object` (should show "This is a MyClass
# object").
print(my_object)
# The previous example is just a simple one, but there are many ways in which a
# class can be pythonized. Typical examples are the redefinition of dunder
# methods (e.g. `__iter__` and `__next__` to make your objects iterable from
# Python). If you need some inspiration, many ROOT classes are pythonized in
# the way we just saw; their pythonizations can be seen at:
# https://github.com/root-project/root/tree/master/bindings/pyroot/pythonizations/python/ROOT/pythonization
# The @pythonization decorator offers a few more options when it comes to
# matching classes that you want to pythonize. We saw that we can match a
# single class, but we can also specify a list of classes to pythonize.
#
# The following code defines a couple of new classes:
ROOT.gInterpreter.Declare('''
namespace NS {
class Class1 {};
class Class2 {};
}
''')
# Note that these classes belong to the `NS` namespace. As mentioned above, the
# @pythonization decorator accepts a parameter with the namespace of the class
# or classes to be pythonized. Therefore, a pythonizor that matches both classes
# would look like this:
@pythonization(['Class1', 'Class2'], ns='NS')
def pythonize_two_classes(klass):
klass.new_attribute = 1
# Both classes will have the new attribute:
o1 = ROOT.NS.Class1()
o2 = ROOT.NS.Class2()
print("Printing new attribute")
for o in o1, o2:
print(o.new_attribute)
# In addition, @pythonization also accepts prefixes of classes in a certain
# namespace in order to match multiple classes in that namespace. To signal that
# what we provide to @pythonization is a prefix, we need to set the `is_prefix`
# argument to `True` (default is `False`).
#
# A common case where matching prefixes is useful is when we have a templated
# class and we want to pythonize all possible instantiations of that template.
# For example, we can pythonize the `std::vector` (templated) class like so:
@pythonization('vector<', ns='std', is_prefix=True)
def vector_pythonizor(klass):
# first_elem returns the first element of the vector if it exists
klass.first_elem = lambda v : v[0] if v else None
# Since we defined a prefix to do the match, the pythonization will be applied
# both if we instantiate e.g. a vector of integers and a vector of doubles.
v_int = ROOT.std.vector['int']([1,2,3])
v_double = ROOT.std.vector['double']([4.,5.,6.])
print("First element of integer vector: {}".format(v_int.first_elem()))
print("First element of double vector: {}".format(v_double.first_elem()))
# Note that specifying a list of class name prefixes is also possible (similarly
# to what we saw with a list of class names). Again, `is_prefix=True` is
# required to signal that we are providing a list of prefixes.
# These are some examples of combinations of prefixes and namespaces and the
# corresponding classes that they match:
# - '' : all classes in the global namespace.
# - '', ns='NS1::NS2' : all classes in the `NS1::NS2` namespace.
# - 'Prefix' : classes whose name starts with `Prefix` in the global namespace.
# - 'Prefix', ns='NS' : classes whose name starts with `Prefix` in the `NS`
# namespace.
# Moreover, a pythonizor function can have a second optional parameter that
# contains the fully-qualified name of the class being pythonized. This can be
# useful e.g. if we would like to do some more complex filtering of classes in
# our pythonizor, for instance using regular expressions.
@pythonization('pair<', ns='std', is_prefix=True)
def pair_pythonizor(klass, name):
print('Pythonizing class ' + name)
# The pythonizor above will be applied to any instantiation of `std::pair` - we
# can see this with the print we did inside the pythonizor.
# Note that we could use the `name` parameter to e.g. further filter which
# particular instantiations we would like to pythonize.
p1 = ROOT.std.pair['int','int'](1,2) # prints 'Pythonizing class std::pair<int,int>'
p2 = ROOT.std.pair['int','double'](1,2.) # prints 'Pythonizing class std::pair<int,double>'
# Note that, to pythonize multiple classes in different namespaces, we can
# stack multiple @pythonization decorators. For example, if we define these
# classes:
ROOT.gInterpreter.Declare('''
class FirstClass {};
namespace NS {
class SecondClass {};
}
''')
# We can pythonize both of them with a single pythonizor function like so:
@pythonization('FirstClass')
@pythonization('SecondClass', ns='NS')
def pythonizor_for_first_and_second(klass, name):
print('Executed for class ' + name)
# If we now access both classes, we should see that the pythonizor runs twice.
f = ROOT.FirstClass()
s = ROOT.NS.SecondClass()
# So far we have seen how pythonizations can be registered for classes that
# have not been used yet. We have discussed how, in that case, the pythonizor
# functions are executed lazily when their target class/es are used for the
# first time in the application.
# However, it can also happen that our target class/es have already been
# accessed by the time we register a pythonization. In such a scenario, the
# pythonizor is applied immediately (at registration time) to the target
# class/es.
# Let's see an example of what was just explained. We will define a new class
# and immediately create an object of that class. We can check how the object
# still does not have a new attribute `pythonized` that we are going to inject
# in the next step.
ROOT.gInterpreter.Declare('''
class MyClass2 {};
''')
o = ROOT.MyClass2()
try:
print(o.pythonized)
except AttributeError:
print("Object has not been pythonized yet!")
# After that, we will register a pythonization for `MyClass2`. Since the class
# has already been used, the pythonization will happen right away.
@pythonization('MyClass2')
def pythonizor_for_myclass2(klass):
klass.pythonized = True
# Now our object does have the `pythonized` attribute:
print(o.pythonized) # prints True
Option_t Option_t TPoint TPoint const char GetTextMagnitude GetFillStyle GetLineColor GetLineWidth GetMarkerStyle GetTextAlign GetTextColor GetTextSize void char Point_t Rectangle_t WindowAttributes_t Float_t Float_t Float_t Int_t Int_t UInt_t UInt_t Rectangle_t Int_t Int_t Window_t TString Int_t GCValues_t GetPrimarySelectionOwner GetDisplay GetScreen GetColormap GetNativeEvent const char const char dpyName wid window const char font_name cursor keysym reg const char only_if_exist regb h Point_t winding char text const char depth char const char Int_t count const char ColorStruct_t color const char Pixmap_t Pixmap_t PictureAttributes_t attr const char char ret_data h unsigned char height h Atom_t Int_t ULong_t ULong_t unsigned char prop_list Atom_t Atom_t Atom_t Time_t format
This is a MyClass object
Printing new attribute
1
1
First element of integer vector: 1
First element of double vector: 4.0
Pythonizing class std::pair<int,int>
Pythonizing class std::pair<int,double>
Executed for class FirstClass
Executed for class NS::SecondClass
Object has not been pythonized yet!
True
Date
November 2021
Author
Enric Tejedor

Definition in file pyroot002_pythonizationDecorator.py.